Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet was a French-Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation. In the years leading up to Confederation, Cartier was a dominant figure in the politics of Canada East as leader of the Parti Bleu. In 1838 he returned to Montreal after a year in exile for his role in the anti-government rebellion. Cartier had several reasons for supporting Confederation, notably his fear of American expansion. He officially entered politics in 1848. During his long career he promoted the establishment of the Civil Code as the formal law of Canada East. He also promoted the introduction of primary education in the province. He died in London, England on May 20, 1873.